EĞİTSEL OTORİTE VE GELECEĞE YÖN VERME
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Otorite, zor kullanmadan insanları etkileyerek yönlendirebilme gücü ve becerisi olarak açıklanmaktadır. Eskiden otorite denilince genellikle katı bir disiplin anlayışı, öğrencileri cezalandırma, azarlama, eleştirme gibi uygulamalar akla geliyordu. Otorite ile güç kullanma kavramları karıştırılıyor ve eğitimde güç kavramı öne çıkıyordu. Tarihsel süreç içerisinde 1960'lı yıllara kadar baskıcı otorite anlayışının uygulandığı, ardından serbest otoritenin ortaya çıktığı, 2000'li yıllarda ise eğitsel otorite kavramının gündeme geldiği görülmektedir. Bu süreçte öğrencilere baskı uygulama ve suçlama anlayışından vazgeçilerek eğitime yönelme başlamıştır. Eğitsel otorite ile öğrencilerin dil ve zihinsel becerilerini geliştirme, değer ve tutumlarını zenginleştirme, geleceklerine yön verme amaçlanmaktadır. Öğrencilerin öğrenmeyi öğrenme, kendini geliştirme ve sorumluluk becerilerini geliştirmek için eğitsel otorite uygulamalarında dikkat edilecek kurallar dile getirilmektedir. Eğitsel otoritenin iyi uygulanması için öğretmenin öğrencileri tanıması, duygu ve düşüncelerine önem vermesi, onlardan gelen eleştirileri dikkate alması, rehberlik yapması, kural ve yönergeleri belirlemesi, çatışmaları çözmesi önerilmektedir. Öğrencilerde aktif öğrenme, sorgulama, tartışma, sorun çözme, eleştirel düşünme gibi becerileri üst düzeyde geliştirmek için eğitsel otorite uygulamalarına önem vermek gerekmektedir. Ancak ülkemizde hâlâ çocuk ve gençlerin eğitiminde bazı öğretmenlerin baskıcı, bazılarının serbest, bazılarının de eğitsel otorite anlayışını uyguladığı görülmektedir. Sınıflarda eğitsel otoriteye yer verilmediği bilinmektedir. Dileğimiz bütün öğretmenlerin eğitsel otorite anlayışını benimsemesi, ülkemizin geleceğine yön verecek düşünen, anlayan, sorgulayan ve sorun çözen bireylerin yetiştirilmesidirEducation is the process of directing the students’ future by providing various knowledge and skills. The most important actor of this process is teacher. The teacher uses educational authority in order to recognize the students well, direct them by attracting and provide necessary guidance. In the past, the authority was considered as strict discipline perception and the applications such as controlling the students’ behaviors, punishing, threat and scolding. It was considered that when the authority did not exist, there would be problems and the organization could not be supported in the schools. In this perception, the concepts of educational authority and using power were mixed and using power became prominent in education activities. These applications in education and the perception of authoritarian behaviors were criticized in later years. The applications such as releasing the students and behaving without planning, decision and aim came up. It was defended that the students should behave independent in the lessons. Then, these applications were evaluated and it was considered that educating the students was not possible by providing independence without guiding them and giving responsibility. In this respect, the conept of educational authority has been formed. It is claimed that educational authority directing the future by affecting the students is necessary since education and learning cannot be qualified without educational authority. In recent education approach, it aimed to improve students’ language and mental skills, enrich their values and attitudes and direct their future by educational authority. Hence, the approaches of using applying oppression, punishing, leaving alone and blaming were given up. What is educational authority? What is the difference of educational authority from the others? As it is known, authority is explained as the power and skill of directing people by attracting them without using force. This perception is also valid for educational authority. Educational authority is the power and skill of directing students by attracting them based on education aims. The educational authority is needed in the school and all grade levels. Teaching and learning cannot be talked about without educational authority. Educational authority puts all knowledge, skills and experience in action, forms theories and rules, organizes the classroom environment, control the education process and facilitates learning in order to improve students. Therefore, authority and education cannot be separated. The concept of power should be paid attention on in order to apply educational authority well. In the application, the concept of power is the head of educational authority and causes misunderstanding. However, educational authority is aimed to direct education and learning by attracting people but being opposite is not aimed. Educational authority has four main properties. They are attracting people, being indirect, changing in time and necessitating knowledge. Teachers are expected to give confidence, help them believe that they can learn and success, direct positively, support development process by educational authority. In this respect, educational authority is the duty of guidance for the students. Educational authority should be conducted to the students indirectly but not directly because educational authority is not the action alone but it is directing to perform another action. In other words, it is directing people to learn by attracting them. It is not wish that people accept by oppression or command which the people obey. On the contrary, it is helping students voluntarily want to learn and improve themselves. Educational authority is the operation whose levels and techniques change in time. The need of educational authority decreases when the students’ skills of learning and improving themselves develop. In other words, educational authority is not needed when the students accept the responsibility of learning and begin to manage. However, the changes in education approach and information technology necessitate changes in educational authority. Educational authority is not the operation of using limitless power, obeying or obedience unconditionally. On the other hand, it includes controlled operations based on knowledge and skills. There are aim, logic and border of educational authority. It operates based on them. It adopts the changes and developments by changing knowledge. Authority in the schools is separated into three groups; oppressor authority, free authority and educational authority. In historical process, it was observed that these authority types were applied in various times. Oppressor authority was used in especially in 1960’s and then free authority was formed. Educational authority has spread in 2000’s. Teachers should pay attention on some rules in order to apply educational authority in the classrooms. They are recognizing students well, giving value, guiding, making educational communication and being example. Teachers accepting the perception of educational authority recognize people well, provide necessary guidance and help, praise students’ success and criticize them by not breaking them. They care feelings and thinking of the students and their criticisms. They prepare and carry out the lessons with them. They always provide confidence and feel confident. They pay attention on educational relationship and behave objective. The responsibility of the students is improved and the decrease in work, amount and quality is not observed even if the teacher is not in the classroom. Working in group, cooperation and relationship between people develop. The development of the skills such as active learning, reasoning, discussing, solving problem, critical thinking are observed. To conclude, educational authority is the concept spreading fast in recent years and paid attention on by the teachers. The importance of educational authority is emphasized and the skill of attracting people without oppression is focused on by the constructivist education approach. The rules in educational authority in order to improve students’ skills of learning of learning, taking responsibility and realizing themselves are explained. However, it is observed there are still teachers using oppressive authority, free authority or educational authority in children and adult education. Our hope is that the teachers should internalize educational authority perception, provide development of the students and educate students that can direct our future, think, understand, criticize and solve problems.