Comparative analysis of Turkey and Germany (Bavaria) secondary education curricula in terms of education for sustainable development
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Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a teaching and learning approach that is based on the principles that underpin sustainability and applies to all levels of education. However, there is a scarcity of research on the integration of curricula with ESD. In this study, secondary school curricula in Germany (Bavaria) (geography, nature and technology) and secondary school curricula in Turkey (social studies, sciences) were compared in terms of learning outcomes and learning areas to the principles of sustainable development (social-environmental-economic). Attempts have been made to shed light on how ESD is reflected in the curricula of Turkey and Germany, as well as how the approach of ESD directs the education curricula. According to the findings of the study, the learning outcomes and learning areas of the curricula of Turkey and Germany are related to the principles of sustainable development, and learning outcomes related to SD dimensions are given more place in the upper grades. Turkeyís social studies curriculum is more related to SDís social dimension principles; the science curriculum is more related to SDís environmental dimension principles; and Germanyís geography, nature and technology curricula are more related to SDís environmental dimension principles. The number of learning outcomes related to the economic dimension principles of SD in both countriesí curricula has been determined to be very low. Especially in Germanyís curricula, unlike Turkeyís curricula, it has been determined that students offer solutions to existing environmental-social-economic problems for sustainability in the context of problemsolving skills and learning outcomes that include case study activities are included.